Antibiotic Resistance Genes - Sited References

 
Genes Resistance Antibiotics Citation
VanA Vancomycin, Oritavancin, Dalbavancin, Telavancin Marshall CG, et al. 1997. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94(12): 6480-6483. D-Ala-D-Ala ligases from glycopeptide antibiotic-producing organisms are highly homologous to the enterococcal vancomycin-resistance ligases VanA and VanB. (PMID 9177243)
VanB Vancomycin, Oritavancin, Dalbavancin, Telavancin Marshall CG, et al. 1997. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 94(12): 6480-6483. D-Ala-D-Ala ligases from glycopeptide antibiotic-producing organisms are highly homologous to the enterococcal vancomycin-resistance ligases VanA and VanB. (PMID 9177243
mecA Doripenem, Meropenem, Ertapenem, Cilastatin/imipenem Deurenberg RH and Stobberingh EE. 2008. Infect Genet Evol 8(6): 747-763. The evolution of Staphylococcus aureus. (PMID 18718557)

Utsui Y and Yokota T. 1985. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 28(3): 397-403. Role of an altered penicillin-binding protein in methicillin- and cephem-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (PMID 3878127)

Cuny C, et al. 2011. PLoS One 6(9): E24360. Rare occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus CC130 with a novel mecA homologue in humans in Germany. (PMID 21931689)

Shore AC, et al. 2011. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 55(8): 3765-3773. Detection of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec type XI carrying highly divergent mecA, mecI, mecR1, blaZ, and ccr genes in human clinical isolates of clonal complex 130 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (PMID 21636525)

Fuda C, et al. 2004. J Biol Chem 279(39): 40802-40806. The basis for resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics by penicillin-binding protein 2a of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (PMID 15226303)

Lim D and Strynadka NC. 2002. Nat Struct Biol 9(11): 870-876. Structural basis for the beta lactam resistance of PBP2a from methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (PMID 12389036)

Ubukata K, et al. 1989. J Bacteriol 171(5): 2882-2885. Expression and inducibility in Staphylococcus aureus of the mecA gene, which encodes a methicillin-resistant S. aureus-specific penicillin-binding protein. (PMID 2708325)

Hartman BJ and Tomasz A. 1984. J Bacteriol 158(2): 513-516. Low-affinity penicillin-binding protein associated with beta-lactam resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. (PMID 6563036)

Kpeli G, et al. 2016. New Microbes New Infect 13:92-101 Possible healthcare-associated transmission as a cause of secondary infection and population structure of Staphylococcus aureus isolates from two wound treatment centres in Ghana. (PMID 27547406)
mecC Penicillin G., Amoxicillin, Cephalosporin C., Cefoxitin, Thienamycin, Azteonam, Clavulanic Acid, Cefazolin, Doribax, Doripenem, Ertapenem, Imipenem/cilastatin, Invanz, Meropenem, Meropenem/vaborbactam, Merrem IV, Cefotetan, Cefmetazole, Cefaclor, Cefdinir, Cefuroxime, Cefadroil, Cephalexin, Cefepime, Ceftriaxone, Ceftaroline Fosamil "Garcia-Alvarez L, et al. 2011. Lancet Infect Dis 11(8): 595-603. Meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus with a novel mecA homologue in human and bovine populations in the UK and Denmark: a descriptive study. (PMID 21641281)

Harrison EM, et al. 2013. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57(3): 1524-1528. A Staphylococcus xylosus isolate with a new mecC allotype. (PMID 23274660)

Paterson GK, et al. 2012. J Antimicrob Chemother 67(12): 2809-2813. The newly described mecA homologue, mecALGA251, is present in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from a diverse range of host species. (PMID 22941897)

Milheiriço C, et al. 2017. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 61(3): Full-Genome Sequencing Identifies in the Genetic Background Several Determinants That Modulate the Resistance Phenotype in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Strains Carrying the Novel mecC Gene.. (PMID 28069659)"
ermB Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Erythromycin, Spiramycin, Telithromycin "Min YH, et al. 2008. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 52(5): 1782-1789. Translational attenuation and mRNA stabilization as mechanisms of erm(B) induction by erythromycin. (PMID 18299414)

Yu L, et al. 1997. Nat Struct Biol 4(6): 483-489. Solution structure of an rRNA methyltransferase (ErmAM) that confers macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin antibiotic resistance. (PMID 9187657)

Hajduk PJ, et al. 1999. J Med Chem 42(19): 3852-3859. Novel inhibitors of Erm methyltransferases from NMR and parallel synthesis. (PMID 10508434)"
tetM Tetracycline, Chlortetracycline, Oxytetracycline, Demeclocycline, Lymecycline, Meclocycline, Methacycline, Minocycline, Rolitetracycline Akhtar M, et al. 2009. Microb Ecol 58(3): 509-518. Horizontal transfer of the tetracycline resistance gene tetM mediated by pCF10 among Enterococcus faecalis in the house fly (Musca domestica L.) alimentary canal. (PMID 19475445)
tetS Tetracycline, Chlortetracycline, Oxytetracycline, Demeclocycline, Lymecycline, Meclocycline, Methacycline, Minocycline, Rolitetracycline "Charpentier E, et al. 1994. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 38(10): 2330-2335. Presence of the Listeria tetracycline resistance gene tet(S) in Enterococcus faecalis. (PMID 7840565)

Charpentier E, et al. 1993. Gene 131(1): 27-34. Characterization of a new class of tetracycline-resistance gene tet(S) in Listeria monocytogenes BM4210. (PMID 8370538)"
AmpC/CMY2 Cefazolin, Cefaclor, Cefdinir, Cefuroxime, Cefadroxil, Cephalexin, Cefepime Ceftriaxone, Cefixime, Ceftaroline Fosamil Lister PD, et al. 2009. Clin. Microbiol. Rev. 22(4):582-610 Antibacterial-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa: clinical impact and complex regulation of chromosomally encoded resistance mechanisms.. (PMID 19822890)
SHV2/SHV5 Cefazolin, Cefaclor, Cefdinir, Cefuroxime, Cefadroxil, Cephalexin, Cefepime Ceftriaxone, Cefixime, Ceftaroline Fosamil,Azithromycin, Clarithromycin, Erythromycin, Spiramycin, Telithromycin, Doribax, Doripenem, Ertapenem, Imipenem/Cilastatin, Invanz, Meropenem, Meropenem/Vaborbactam, Merrem IV "Bradford PA. 1999. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 43(12): 2960-2963. Automated thermal cycling is superior to traditional methods for nucleotide sequencing of bla(SHV) genes. (PMID 10582889

Podbielski A, et al. 1991. J Gen Microbiol 137(3): 569-578. Molecular characterization of a new plasmid-encoded SHV-type beta-lactamase (SHV-2 variant) conferring high-level cefotaxime resistance upon Klebsiella pneumoniae. (PMID 2033379)"
mcr-1 Bacitracin, Tyrothricin, Polymyxin B, Colistin, Actinomycin-D Liu YY, et al. 2015. Lancet Infect Dis : Emergence of plasmid-mediated colistin resistance mechanism MCR-1 in animals and human beings in China: a microbiological and molecular biological study.. (PMID 26603172)
grlA Sparfloxacin, Norfloxacin, Ciprofloxacin "Yamagishi JI et. al., 1996. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 40 (12): 1157-1163. Alterations in the DNA Topoisomerase IV grlA Gene: Responsible for Quinolone Resistance
in Staphylococcus aureus. "
Cfr23S Linezolid, Tedizolid, Erythromycin, Clarithromycin, Fidaxomicin, Azithromycin, Clindamycin, Lincomycin, Pirlimycin, Pristinamycin, Virginamycin "Morales G, et al. 2010. Clin Infect Dis 50(6): 821-825. Resistance to linezolid is mediated by the cfr gene in the first report of an outbreak of linezolid-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (PMID 20144045)

Tsiodras S, et al. 2001. Lancet 358(9277): 207-208. Linezolid resistance in a clinical isolate of Staphylococcus aureus. (PMID 11476839)

Nannini E, et al. 2010. Curr Opin Pharmacol 10(5): 516-521. Resistance or decreased susceptibility to glycopeptides, daptomycin, and linezolid in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. (PMID 20598637)

Toh SM, et al. 2007. Mol Microbiol 64(6): 1506-1514. Acquisition of a natural resistance gene renders a clinical strain of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus resistant to the synthetic antibiotic linezolid. (PMID 17555436)

Atkinson GC, et al. 2013. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 57(8): 4019-4026. Distinction between the Cfr methyltransferase conferring antibiotic resistance and the housekeeping RlmN methyltransferase. (PMID 23752511)
Tn1546 (USA-specific) Gentamycin, Vancomycin, Erythromycin, Penicillin or Tetracycline; 1. Simjee S et. al., 2002. J Clinical Micriobiol 40: 4659-4665. Characterization of Tn1546 in Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Canine Urinary Tract Infections: Evidence of Gene Exchange between Human and Animal Enterococci.

Willems RJL et. al., 1999. Antimicrob Agents Chemother 40 (12): 1157-1163. Molecular Diversity and Evolutionary Relationships of Tn1546-Like Elements in Enterococci from Humans and Animals.