Upper Respiratory Infection

  1. Upper respiratory infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young, geriatric and immunocompromised patients. 

  2. Rapid antigen tests like the flu and Strept. tests have created a false sense of security among patients and providers - they lack sensitivity and only focus on a single pathogen diagnosis.

  3. Co-infection is HIGH in Respiratory illness

  4. False negatives can lead to a delayed diagnosis and poor clinical outcomes. 


Bacterial Pathogens:
-Bordetella pertussis
-Chlamydophila pneumoniae
-Haemophilus influenzae
-Legionella pneumophila
-Moraxella catarrhalis
-Streptococcus pneumoniae
-Steptococcus pyogenes
(Group A)


Viral Pathogens:
-Coronavirus (229E, HKU1,
NL63, OC43)
-Human Metapneumovirus (A,B)
-Himan Rhinovirus
-Influenza (A,B)
-Parainfluenza Virus (1,2,3,4)
-Respiratory Syncytial Virus (A,B)