Upper Respiratory Infection


 
  1. Upper respiratory infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in young, geriatric and immunocompromised patients. 

  2. Rapid antigen tests like the flu and Strept. tests have created a false sense of security among patients and providers - they lack sensitivity and only focus on a single pathogen diagnosis.

  3. Co-infection is HIGH in Respiratory illness

  4. False negatives can lead to a delayed diagnosis and poor clinical outcomes. 

 
 

Viral Pathogens:

  • Adenovirus (1,2)

  • Bocavirus

  • Coronavirus (229E,HKU1,NL63,OC43)

  • Cytomegalovirus

  • Enterovirus (1,2)

  • Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)

  • Human Herpesvirus 6

  • Human Metapneumovirus (A,B)

  • Himan Rhinovirus

  • Influenza (A,B)

  • -Measles

  • MERS-CoV

  • Mumps

  • Parainfluenza Virus (1,2,3,4)

  • Parechovirus

  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus (A,B)

  • Rhinoviruses (1,2)

  • SARS- CoV

Bacterial Pathogens:

  • Legionella Pneumophila

  • Moraxella Catarrhalis

  • Mycoplasma Pneumoniae

  • Staphylococcus Aureus

  • Streptococcus Pneumoniae

  • Bordetella Holmesii

  • Bordetella (PAN)

  • Bordetella Pertussis

  • Chlamydophila Pneumoniae

  • Coxiella Burnetii

  • Haemophilus Influenzae